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What are Proportions?
A proportion is a statement that equates two ratios. For example, suppose that baking a single cake requires 250 g of chocolate. Then you know that 500 g of chocolate are needed to bake two cakes. This can be expressed as a proportion equation:
250 g chocolate /1 cake = 500 g chocolate/2 cakes
This is read as "250 g of chocolate is to 1 cake as 500 g of chocolate is to 2 cakes ".
A proportion statement is an equation because there is an = sign.
Many situations in the laboratory require the same reasoning as the above example. For example, if 10 g of glucose are required to make 1 L of a nutrient solution, how many grams of glucose are needed to make 3 L of nutrient solution? 30 g of glucose would be required.