Professor Ben Smith (Director of Research)

Professor Ben Smith is the Director of Research within the Institute, responsible for the strategic delivery and execution of the Institute's research strategies.

Professor Ben Smith is an ecologist and ecosystem modeller interested in the role of population and community processes in the structural and functional dynamics of the world’s major ecosystem types, or biomes. He has developed widely-used tools for exploring responses of vegetation and ecosystems to drivers such as climate change, rising CO2 concentrations  and land use. He is interested in the role of the biosphere in regional and global climate dynamics, using Earth system models to examine biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks of ecosystem change to the atmosphere.

Prof Smith retains a part-time affiliation with the Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sweden.

Areas of research/teaching expertise

Process-based vegetation and biogeochemical modelling; Earth (climate) system modelling; climate change impacts on ecosystems; biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks; carbon-nitrogen interactions; forest, savannah and treeline dynamics; land use/management modelling; model-data synthesis.

Bushfire Research

Our research also includes the role of fire and its effects on global change. Please see here (opens in a new window) for further details on our bushfire research.

Awards and recognition

  • Clarivate Highly Cited (HiCi) Researcher ranked in the top 1% of researchers globally – identifying them as the world’s most influential scientists, 2019-2021
  • Head of Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sweden, 2018
  • Founding Member, Baltic Earth network, 2014-2018
  • Distinguished Visiting Scientist, CSIRO, 2014, 2017
  • Fellow of the Royal Physiographic Society of Lund, Elected 2014
  • Special Research Fellowship, Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, 2003-2007.

Current Grants

Considering biodiversity in natural product supply chains
Co-researchers: Rachael Gallagher, Paul Rymer

Partner/Funding Body: Blackmores Group
Period: 2023

Climate Technology Innovation: Market Mapping and Opportunity Identification

Partner/Funding Body: NSW Government Office of Energy and Climate Change [via UNSW]
Period: 2023

Understanding the survival of forests under drought
Co-Researcher: Brendan Choat
Partner/Funding Body: Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (via CSIRO)
Period: 2022

Understanding snow gum dieback for effective and integrated management [via ANU] 
Co-Researchers: Adrienne Nicotra, Matthew Brookhouse, Saul Cunningham, Owen Atkin, James Pittock, Mellesa Schroder, Rosie Cooney, Josh Dorrough, Paul Miller
Partner/funding body: ARC-Linkage

NSW Bushfire and Natural Hazards Research Centre

Co-researchers: Matthias Boer, Belinda Medlyn, Rachael Gallagher, Rachael Nolan
Partner/funding body: NSW Department of Planning and Environment
Period: 2022-2026

NSW Decarbonisation Innovation Hub 
Co-Researchers: Brajesh Singh, Belinda Medlyn and Mark Tjoelker
Partner/Funding Body: NSW Office of the Chief Scientist and Engineer/NSW Environmental Trust (via UNSW)
Period: 2022-2030

Forest sinks and emissions
Co-Researcher: Juergen Knauer
Partner/Funding Body: Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (via CSIRO)
Period: 2022

Mechanistic responses of phosphorus-limited forests to CO2 enrichment
Co-Researcher: Catriona Macdonald and David Ellsworth
Partner/Funding Body: Australian Research Council Discovery
Period: 2022-2025

Understanding the survival of forests under drought
Co-Researcher: Brendan Choat
Partner/Funding Body: Australian Research Council Discovery
Period: 2022-2024

The influence of climate change on bushfire fuels in Victoria
Co-Researchers: Mingkai Jiang, Rachael Nolan, Matthias Boer, Belinda Medlyn and Assaf Inbar
Partner/Funding Body: Country Fire Authority
Period: 2021-2023

Phosphorus cycle interactions with elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in forest ecosystems: impacts from stand to global scale
Co-Researchers: David Ellsworth, Catriona Macdonald, David Wårlind and Anja Rammig
Period: 2021-2024
Partner/Funding Body: Swedish Research Council [via Lund University]

How large has CO2 fertilization been for global forests and northern peatlands over the 20th century?Co-Researchers: Juergen Schleucher and Mats Nilsson
Period: 2019-2022
Partner/Funding Body: Swedish Research Council

Selected Publications

Holm JA, Medvigy DM, Smith B, Dukes JS, Beier C, Mishurov M, Xu X, Lichstein JW, Allen CD, Larsen KS, Luo Y, Ficken C, Pockman WT, Anderegg WRL, Rammig A, (2023) 'Exploring the impacts of unprecedented climate extremes on forest ecosystems: Hypotheses to guide modeling and experimental studies', Biogeosciences, vol.20, no.11, p 2117-2142

Meier HEM, Reckermann M, Langner J, Smith B, Didenkulova I, (2023) 'Overview: The Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR)', Earth System Dynamics, vol.14, no.2, pp 519-531

Teckentrup L, De Kauwe MG, Abramowitz G, Pitman AJ, Ukkola AM, Hobeichi S, François B, Smith B, (2023) 'Opening Pandora's box: Reducing global circulation model uncertainty in Australian simulations of the carbon cycle', Earth System Dynamics, vol.14, no.3, pp 549 - 576

Belda DM, Anthoni P, Warlind D, Olin S, Schurgers G, Tang J, Smith B, Arneth A, (2022) 'LPJ-GUESS/LSMv1.0: a next-generation land surface model with high ecological realism', Geoscientific Model Development, vol.15, no.17, pp 6709-6745

Gregor K, Knoke T, Krause A, Reyer CPO, Lindeskog M, Papastefanou P, Smith B, Lanso AS, Rammig A, (2022) 'Trade-Offs for Climate-Smart Forestry in Europe Under Uncertain Future Climate', Earths Future, vol.10, no.9, Article no.e2022EF002796

Luo Y, Huang YY, Sierra CA, Xia JY, Ahlstrom A, Chen YZ, Hararuk O, Hou EQ, Jiang LF, Liao CJ, Lu XJ, Shi Z, Smith B, Tao F, Wang YP, (2022) 'Matrix Approach to Land Carbon Cycle Modeling', Journal of Advances in Modelling Earth Systems, vol.14, no.7, Article no.e2022MS003008

Martín Belda D, Anthoni P, Wårlind D, Olin S, Schurgers G, Tang J, Smith B, Arneth A, (2022) 'LPJ-GUESS/LSMv1.0: A next-generation land surface model with high ecological realism', Geoscientific Model Development, vol.15, no.17, pp 6709 - 6745

Qiu C, Ciais P, Zhu D, Guenet B, Chang J, Chaudhary N, Kleinen T, Li X, Müller J, Xi Y, Zhang W, Ballantyne A, Brewer SC, Brovkin V, Charman DJ, Gustafson A, Gallego-Sala AV, Gasser T, Holden J, Joos F, Kwon MJ, Lauerwald R, Miller PA, Peng S, Page S, Smith B, Stocker BD, Sannel ABK, Salmon E, Schurgers G, Shurpali NJ, Wårlind D, Westermann S, (2022) 'A strong mitigation scenario maintains climate neutrality of northern peatlands', One Earth, vol.5, no.1, pp 86-97

Scheel M, Lindeskog M, Smith B, Suvanto S, Pugh TAM, (2022) 'Increased Central European forest mortality explained by higher harvest rates driven by enhanced productivity', Environmental Research Letters, vol.17, no.11, Article no.114007

Smith B, (2022) 'Declining global leaf nitrogen content: smart resource use by flexible plants?', New Phytologist, vol.235, no.5, pp 1683-1685

Akperov M, Zhang WX, Miller PA, Mokhov II, Semenov VA, Matthes H, Smith B, Rinke A, (2021) 'Responses of Arctic cyclones to biogeophysical feedbacks under future warming scenarios in a regional Earth system model', Environmental Research Letters, vol.16, no.6, Article no.064076

Falster DS, Gallagher RV, Wenk E, Wright IJ, Indiarto D, Andrew SC, Baxter C, Lawson J, Allen S, Fuchs A, Monro A, Kar F, Adams MA, Ahrens CW, Alfonzetti M, Angevin T, Apgaua DMG, Arndt A, Atkin OK, Atkinson J, Auld TD, Baker A, von Balthazar M, Bean A, Blackman CJ, Bloomfield K, Bowman DMJS, Bragg J, Brodribb TJ, Buckton G, Burrows G, Caldwell E, Camac J, Carpenter R, Catford JA, Cawthray GR, Cernusak LA, Chandler G, Chapman AR, Cheal D, Cheesman AW, Chen S-C, Choat B, Clinton B, Clode PL, Coleman H, Cornwell WK, Cosgrove M, Crisp M, Cross E, Crous KY, Cunningham S, Curran T, Curtis E, Daws MI, DeGabriel JL, Denton MD, Dong N, Du P, Duan H, Duncan DH, Duncan RP, Duretto M, Dwyer JM, Edwards C, Esperon-Rodriguez M, Evans JR, Everingham SE, Farrell C, Firn J, Fonseca CR, French BJ, Frood D, Funk JL, Geange SR, Ghannoum O, Gleason SM, Gosper CR, Gray E, Groom PK, Grootemaat S, Gross C, Guerin G, Guja L, Hahs AK, Harrison MT, Hayes PE, Henery M, Hochuli D, Howell J, Huang G, Hughes L, Huisman J, Ilic J, Jagdish A, Jin D, Jordan G, Jurado E, Kanowski J, Kasel S, Kellermann J, Kenny B, Kohout M, Kooyman RM, Kotowska MM, Lai HR, Laliberté E, Lambers H, Lamont BB, Lanfear R, van Langevelde F, Laughlin DC, Laugier-Kitchener B-A, Laurance S, Lehmann CER, Leigh A, Leishman MR, Lenz T, Lepschi B, Lewis JD, Lim F, Liu U, Lord J, Lusk CH, Macinnis-Ng C, McPherson H, Magallón S, Manea A, López-Martinez A, Mayfield M, McCarthy JK, Meers T, van der Merwe M, Metcalfe DJ, Milberg P, Mokany K, Moles AT, Moore BD, Moore N, Morgan JW, Morris W, Muir A, Munroe S, Nicholson A, Nicolle D, Nicotra AB, Niinemets Ü, North T, O’Reilly-Nugent A, O’Sullivan OS, Oberle B, Onoda Y, Ooi MKJ, Osborne CP, Paczkowska G, Pekin B, Guilherme Pereira C, Pickering C, Pickup M, Pollock LJ, Poot P, Powell JR, Power SA, Prentice IC, Prior L, Prober SM, Read J, Reynolds V, Richards AE, Richardson B, Roderick ML, Rosell JA, Rossetto M, Rye B, Rymer PD, Sams MA, Sanson G, Sauquet H, Schmidt S, Schönenberger J, Schulze E-D, Sendall K, Sinclair S, Smith B, Smith R, Soper F, Sparrow B, Standish RJ, Staples TL, Stephens R, Szota C, Taseski G, Tasker E, Thomas F, Tissue DT, Tjoelker MG, Tng DYP, de Tombeur F, Tomlinson K, Turner NC, Veneklaas EJ, Venn S, Vesk P, VlasveldC , Vorontsova MS, Warren CA, Warwick N, Weerasinghe LK, Wells J, Westoby M, White M, Williams NSG, Wills J, Wilson PG, Yates C, Zanne AE, Zemunik G, Ziemińska K, (2021) 'AusTraits, a curated plant trait database for the Australian flora', Scientific Data, vol.8, no.1, Article no.254

Gustafson A, Miller PA, Björk RG, Olin S, Smith B, (2021) 'Nitrogen restricts future sub-Arctic treeline advance in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model', Biogeosciences, vol.18, no.23, pp 6329 - 6347

Lindeskog M, Smith B, Lagergren F, Sycheva E, Ficko A, Pretzsch H, Rammig A, (2021) 'Accounting for forest management in the estimation of forest carbon balance using the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (v4.0, r9710): Implementation and evaluation of simulations for Europe', Geoscientific Model Development, vol.14, no.10, pp 6071 - 6112

Lu ZY, Zhang Q, Miller PA, Zhang Q, Berntell E, Smith B, (2021) 'Impacts of Large-Scale Sahara Solar Farms on Global Climate and Vegetation Cover', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.48, no.2, Article no.e2020GL090789

Teckentrup L, De Kauwe MG, J Pitman A, Smith B, (2021) 'Examining the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon cycle to the expression of El Niño', Biogeosciences, vol.18, pp 2181-2203

Wu M, Smith B, Schurgers G, Ahlström A, Rummukainen M, (2021) 'Vegetation-Climate Feedbacks Enhance Spatial Heterogeneity of Pan-Amazonian Ecosystem States Under Climate Change', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.48, no.8, Article no.e2020GL092001

Davies-Barnard T, Meyerholt J, Zaehle S, Friedlingstein P, Brovkin V, Fan Y, Fisher RA, Jones CD, Lee H, Peano D, Smith B, Wärlind D, Wiltshire AJ, (2020) 'Nitrogen cycling in CMIP6 land surface models: Progress and limitations', Biogeosciences, vol.17, no.20, pp 5129-5148

Haverd V, Smith B, Canadell JG, Cuntz M, Mikaloff-Fletcher S, Farquhar G, Woodgate W, Briggs PR, Trudinger CM, (2020) 'Higher than expected CO2 fertilization inferred from leaf to global observations', Global Change Biology, vol.26, no.4, pp 2390-2402

Jiang M, Medlyn BE, Drake JE, Duursma RA, Anderson IC, Barton CVM, Boer MM, Carrillo Y, Castaneda-Gomez L, Collins L, Crous KY, De Kauwe MG, dos Santos BM, Emmerson KM, Facey SL, Gherlenda AN, Gimeno TE, Hasegawa S, Johnson SN, Kannaste A, Macdonald CA, Mahmud K, Moore BD, Nazaries L, Neilson EHJ, Nielsen UN, Niinemets U, Noh NJ, Ochoa-Hueso R, Pathare VS, Pendall E, Pihlblad J, Pineiro J, Powell JR, Power SA, Reich PB, Renchon AA, Riegler M, Rinnan R, Rymer PD, Salomon RL, Singh BK, Smith B, Tjoelker MG, Walker JKM, Wujeska-Klause A, Yang JY, Zaehle S, Ellsworth DS, (2020) 'The fate of carbon in a mature forest under carbon dioxide enrichment', Nature, vol.580, no.7802, pp 227-231

Pugh TAM, Rademacher TT, Shafer SL, Steinkamp J, Barichivich J, Beckage B, Haverd V, Harper A, Heinke J, Nishina K, Rammig A, Sato H, Arneth A, Hantson S, Hickler T, Kautz M, Quesada B, Smith B, Thonicke K, (2020) 'Understanding the uncertainty in global forest carbon turnover', Biogeosciences, vol.17, no.15, pp 3961-3989

Venkatappa M, Anantsuksomsri S, Castillo JA, Smith B, Sasaki N, (2020) 'Mapping the Natural Distribution of Bamboo and Related Carbon Stocks in the Tropics Using Google Earth Engine, Phenological Behavior, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-2', Remote Sensing, vol.12, no.18, Article no.3109

Venkatappa M, Sasaki N, Anantsuksomsri S, Smith B, (2020) 'Applications of the google earth engine and phenology-based threshold classification method for mapping forest cover and carbon stock changes in Siem Reap province, Cambodia', Remote Sensing, vol.12, no.18, Article no.3110

Zhang W, Döscher R, Koenigk T, Miller PA, Jansson C, Samuelsson P, Wu M, Smith B, (2020) 'The Interplay of Recent Vegetation and Sea Ice Dynamics—Results From a Regional Earth System Model Over the Arctic', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.47, no.6, Article no.e2019GL085982

Lu Z, Miller PA, Zhang Q, Warlind D, Nieradzik L, Sjolte J, Li Q, Smith B, (2019) 'Vegetation Pattern and Terrestrial Carbon Variation in Past Warm and Cold Climates', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.46, no.14, pp 8133-8143

Pugh T, Lindeskog M, Smith B, Poulter B, Arneth A, Haverd V, Calle L, (2019) 'Role of forest regrowth in global carbon sink dynamics', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol 116, no 10, pp 4382-4387

Pugh TAM, Arneth A, Kautz M, Poulter B, Smith B, (2019) 'Important role of forest disturbances in the global biomass turnover and carbon sinks', Nature Geoscience, vol.12, no.9, pp 730-735

Wu Z, Hugelius G, Luo Y, Smith B, Xia J, Fensholt R, Lehsten V, Ahlstrom A, (2019) 'Approaching the potential of model-data comparisons of global land carbon storage', Scientific Reports, vol 9, no 1, Article no.3367

Fisher R, Koven CD, Anderegg WRL, Christoffersen BO, Dietze MC, Farrior C, Holm JA, Hurtt G, Knox RG, Lawrence PJ, Longo M, Matheny AM, Medvigy D, Muller-Landau HC, Powell TL, Serbin SP, Sato H, Shuman J, Smith B, Trugman AT, Viskari T, Verbeeck H, Weng E, Xu C, Xu X, Zhang T, Moorcroft P, (2018) 'Vegetation demographics in Earth system models: a review of progress and priorities', Global Change Biology, vol.24, pp 35-54

Haverd V, Smith B, Nieradzik L, Briggs PR, Woodgate W, Trudinger CM, Canadell JG, Cuntz M, (2018) 'A new version of the CABLE land surface model (Subversion revision r4601) incorporating land use and land cover change, woody vegetation demography, and a novel optimisation-based approach to plant coordination of photosynthesis', Geoscientific Model Development, vol.11, pp 2995-3026

Lusk CH, Clearwater MJ, Laughlin DC, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Nordenstahl M, Smith B, (2018) 'Frost and leaf-size gradients in forests: global patterns and experimental evidence', New Phytologist, vol.219, pp 565-573

Zhang W, Miller PA, Jansson C, Samuelsson P, Mao J, Smith B, (2018) 'Self-amplifying feedbacks accelerate greening and warming of the Arctic', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.45, pp 7102-7111

Engström K, Lindeskog M, Olin S, Hassler J, Smith B, (2017) 'Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance', Earth System Dynamics, vol.8, pp 773-799

Haverd V, Ahlström A, Smith B, Canadell JG, (2017) 'Carbon cycle responses of semi-arid ecosystems to positive asymmetry in rainfall', Global Change Biology, vol.23, pp 793-800

Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Duursma RA, Luus K, Mishurov M, Pak B, Smith B, Wang Y-P, Yang X, Crous KY, Drake JE, Gimeno TE, Macdonald CA, Norby RJ, Power SA, Tjoelker MG, Ellsworth DS, (2016) 'Using models to guide field experiments: a priori predictions for the CO2 response of a nutrient- and water-limited native Eucalypt woodland', Global Change Biology, vol.22, pp 2834-2851

Norby RJ, De Kauwe MG, Domingues TF, Duursma RA, Ellsworth DS, Goll DS, Lapola DM, Luus KA, MacKenzie AR, Medlyn BE, Pavlick R, Rammig A, Smith B, Thomas R, Thonicke K, Walker AP, Yang X, Zaehle S, (2016) 'Model–data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments', New Phytologist, vol.209, pp 17–28

Pugh TAM, Müller C, Arneth A, Haverd V, Smith B, (2016) 'Key knowledge and data gaps in modelling the influence of CO2 concentration on the terrestrial carbon sink', Journal of Plant Physiology, vol.203, pp 3-15

Wu M, Schurgers G, Rummukainen M, Smith B, Samuelsson P, Jansson C, Siltberg J, May W, (2016) 'Vegetation-climate feedbacks modulate rainfall patterns in Africa under future climate change', Earth System Dynamics, vol.7, pp 627-647

Ahlström A, Raupach MR, Schurgers G, Smith B, Arneth A, Jung M, Reichstein M, Canadell JP, Friedlingstein P, Jain AK, Kato E, Poulter B, Sitch S, Stocker BD, Viovy N, Wang Y-P, Wiltshire A, Zaehle S, Zeng N, (2015) 'The dominant role of semi-arid ecosystems in the trend and variability of the land CO2 sink', Science, vol.348, pp 895-899

Ahlström A, Xia J, Arneth A, Luo Y, Smith B, (2015) 'Importance of vegetation dynamics for future terrestrial carbon cycling', Environmental Research Letters, vol.10, 054019

Jönsson AM, Lagergren F, Smith B, (2015) 'Forest management facing climate change—an ecosystem model analysis of adaptation strategies',  Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol.20, pp 201-220

Smith B, Wårlind D, Arneth A, Hickler T, Leadley P, Siltberg J, Zaehle S, (2014) 'Implications of incorporating N cycling and N limitations on primary production in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model', Biogeosciences, vol.11, pp 2027-2054

Haverd V, Smith B, Cook GD, Briggs PR, Nieradzik L, Roxburgh SR, Liedloff A, Meyer CP, Canadell JG, (2013) 'A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models', Geophysical Research Letters, vol.40, 5234-5239

Lindeskog M, Arneth A, Bondeau A, Waha K, Seaquist J, Olin S, Smith B, (2013) 'Implications of accounting for land use in simulations of ecosystem services and carbon cycling in Africa', Earth System Dynamics, vol.4, pp 385-407

Ahlström A, Schurgers G, Arneth A, Smith B, (2012) 'Robustness and uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem carbon response to CMIP5 climate change projections', Environmental Research Letters, vol.7, 044008

Jönsson AM, Schroeder LM, Lagergren F, Anderbrandt O, Smith B, (2012) 'Guess the impact of Ips typographus—An ecosystem modelling approach for simulating bark beetle outbreaks', Agricultural & Forest Meteorology, vol.s 166-167, pp 188-200

Smith B, Samuelsson P, Wramneby A, Rummukainen M, (2011) 'A model of the coupled dynamics of climate, vegetation and terrestrial ecosystem biogeochemistry for regional applications', Tellus Series A, vol.63, pp 87-106

Hickler T, Smith B, Prentice IC, Mjöfors K, Miller P, Arneth A, Sykes MT, (2008) 'CO2 fertilization in temperate forest FACE experiments not representative of boreal and tropical forests', Global Change Biology, vol.14, pp 1-12

Smith B, Aasa A, Ahas R, Blenckner T, Callaghan T, de Chazal J, Humborg C, Jönsson AM, Kellomäki S, Kull A, Lehikoinen E, Mander Ü, Nõges P, Nõges T, Rounsevell M, Sofiev M, Tryjanowski P, Wolf A, (2008) 'Climate-related change in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems', In: BACC Author Team, Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 221-308

Smith B, Knorr W, Widlowski J-L, Pinty B, Gobron N, (2008) 'Combining remote sensing data with process modelling to monitor boreal conifer forest carbon balances', Forest Ecology & Management, no.255, pp 3985-3994

Bondeau A, Smith PC, Zaehle S, Schaphoff S, Lucht W, Cramer W, Gerten D, Lotze-Campen H, Müller C, Reichstein M, Smith B, (2007) 'Modelling the role of agriculture for the 20th century global terrestrial carbon balance', Global Change Biology, vol.13, pp 679-706

Prentice IC, Bondeau A, Cramer W, Harrison SP, Hickler T, Lucht W, Sitch S, Smith B, Sykes MT, (2007) 'Dynamic global vegetation modelling: quantifying terrestrial ecosystem responses to large-scale environmental change', In: Canadell, J.G., Pataki, D.E. & Pitelka, L.F. (eds) Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 175-192

Koca D, Smith B, Sykes MT, (2006) 'Modelling regional climate change effects on potential natural ecosystems in Sweden', Climatic Change, vol.78, pp 381-406

Zaehle S, Sitch S, Smith B, Hatterman F, (2005) 'Effects of parameter uncertainties on the modeling of terrestrial biosphere dynamics', Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol.19, p 3020

Hickler T, Smith B, Sykes MT, Davis MB, Sugita S, Walker K, (2004) 'Using a generalized vegetation model to simulate vegetation dynamics in the western Great Lakes region, USA, under alternative disturbance regimes', Ecology, vol.85, pp 519-530

Sitch S, Smith B, Prentice IC, Arneth A, Bondeau A, Cramer W, Kaplan J, Levis S, Lucht W, Sykes M, Thonicke K, Venevsky S, (2003) 'Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ Dynamic Global Vegetation Model', Global Change Biology, vol.9, pp 161-185

Lucht W, Prentice IC, Myneni RB, Sitch S, Friedlingstein P, Cramer W, Bousquet P, Buermann W, Smith B, (2002) 'Climatic control of the high-latitude vegetation greening trend and Pinatubo effect', Science, vol.296, pp 1687-1689

Cramer W, Bondeau A, Woodward FI, Prentice IC, Betts RA, Brovkin V, Cox PM, Fisher V, Foley JA, Friend AD, Kucharik C, Lomas MR, Ramankutty N, Sitch S, Smith B, White A, Young-Molling C, (2001) 'Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models', Global Change Biology, vol.7, pp 357-373

Smith B, Prentice IC, Sykes MT, (2001) 'Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: comparing two contrasting approaches within European climate space', Global Ecology & Biogeography, vol.10, pp 621-637

Drobner U, Bibby J, Smith B, Wilson JB, (1998) 'The relation between community biomass and evenness: what does community theory predict, and can these predictions be tested?', Oikos, vol.82, pp 295-302

Lusk CH, Smith B, (1998) 'Mechanisms of tree species coexistence in an old-growth New Zealand rain forest', Ecology, vol.79, pp 795-806

Smith B, Wilson JB, (1996) 'A consumer's guide to evenness indices', Oikos, vol.76, pp 70-82

Smith B, Mark AF, Wilson JB, (1995) 'A functional analysis of New Zealand alpine vegetation: variation in canopy roughness and functional diversity in response to an experimental wind barrier', Functional Ecology, vol.9, pp 904-912