Doctor Sharon Kwok

Doctor Sharon Kwok

Lecturer in Criminology,
Criminology & Policing


Sharon Ingrid Kwok is Lecturer of Criminology in the School of Social Sciences  at Western Sydney University. Prior to joining Western Sydney University in 2018, she worked as a research fellow in Department of Applied Social Sciences of City University of Hong Kong, specializing in the study of triad society and Chinese organized crime. She obtained her Bachelor of Arts (Social Policy and Criminology) from University of Hull in 2001, Master of Science (Criminal Justice Policy) from the London School of Economics in 2004, and PhD (Criminology) from City University of Hong Kong in 2017. 

Being the only female researcher conducting ethnographic research on triad society, she has been interviewed by various international media, such as ABC, CNN, TIME, New York Times, Bloomberg, Wall Street Journal, and Strait Times etc. on triad related topics. She has published a number of refereed papers in the British Journal of Criminology, Qualitative Research, Trends in Organized Crime, and Urban History. She is the ediorial board member of Gllobal Crime since 2022 (

This information has been contributed by Doctor Kwok.


  • Phd City University of Hong Kong
  • MSc University of London
  • BA University of Hull
  • DipAdmMan City University of Hong Kong

Professional Memberships

  • Editorial Board Member, Global Crime (2022)
  • Expert Penal Member (Mafia-type organised crime in Asia) of Global Initiatives Against Transnational Crime (2021)


  • Chinese Organised Crime
  • Transnational Crime
  • Triad Society

Organisational Unit (School / Division)

  • Criminology & Policing


Phone: (02) 9772 6240
Location: 3.6.10

PLEASE NOTE: obtaining information from this Directory must be for the legitimate purposes of doing business with and within Western Sydney University, and must not be used for unsolicited bulk e-mailing (spamming) or similar purposes.


Previous Teaching Areas

  • 102198 Transnational Crime, 2019
  • CULT2018 Crime Prevention and Drugs, 2021



  • Lo, T., Siegel, D. and Kwok, S. (2020), 'Organized Crime and Corruption Across Borders: Exploring the Belt and Road Initiative', : Routledge 9780367142766.

Chapters in Books

  • Lo, T., Li, L. and Kwok, S. (2020), 'Control of grand corruption and triad crime in China', Organized Crime and Corruption Across Borders: Exploring the Belt and Road Initiative, Routledge 9789367142766.
  • Lo, T., Siegel, D. and Kwok, S. (2020), 'One Belt, One Road and the process of OBORization', Organized Crime and Corruption Across Borders: Exploring the Belt and Road Initiative, Routledge 9780367142766.
  • Kwok, S. and Lo, T. (2014), 'Crime and its control in Hong Kong', The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Criminology, Routledge 9780415500401.
  • Lo, T. and Kwok, S. (2014), 'Triads and tongs', Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Springer 9781461456896.
  • Kwok, S., Lo, T. and Lee, P. (2013), 'Policing and mentally ill persons in Hong Kong', Policing and the Mentally Ill: International Perspectives, CRC Press 9781439881163.
  • Lo, T. and Kwok, S. (2012), 'Traditional organized crime in the modern world : how triad societies respond to socioeconomic change', Traditional Organized Crime in the Modern World: Responses to Socioeconomic Change, Springer 9781461432111.

Journal Articles

  • Lo, T., Kwok, S. and Garrett, D. (2021), 'Securitizing the colour revolution : assessing the political role of triads in Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement', British Journal of Criminology, vol 61, no 6 , pp 1521 - 1539.
  • Kwok, S. (2020), 'Negotiating access to research on triad society : the importance of Chinese and triad cultural capital', Qualitative Research, vol 20, no 3 , pp 307 - 323.
  • Lo, T., Hui, C., Lee, G. and Kwok, S. (2019), 'Tolerance of triads, police legitimacy, self-help amidst the Umbrella Movement', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, vol 52, no 4 , pp 516 - 533.
  • Tam, H., Kwok, S., Lo, T., Lam, H. and Lee, K. (2018), 'Hidden drug abuse in Hong Kong : from social acquaintance to social isolation', Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol 9 .
  • Lo, T. and Kwok, S. (2017), 'Triad organized crime in Macau casinos : extra-legal governance and entrepreneurship', British Journal of Criminology, vol 57, no 3 , pp 589 - 607.
  • Kwok, S. and Lo, T. (2013), 'Anti-triad legislations in Hong Kong : issues, problems and development', Trends in Organized Crime, vol 16, no 1 , pp 74 - 94.
  • Cheng, C., Kwok, S. and Lo, T. (2013), 'Risk factors and the mediating effects of triad societies on deviant behaviors of young people', Issues on Juvenile Crimes and Delinquency, vol 5 , pp 22 - 31.
  • Lo, T., Chappell, D., Kwok, S. and Wu, J. (2012), 'Workplace violence in Hong Kong, China : nature, impact, and preparedness', International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, vol 56, no 6 , pp 955 - 975.
  • Choo, K., Choi, K., Sung, Y. and Kwok, S. (2011), 'The impact of the "Act on the Punishment of Intermediating in the Sex Trade" and the police crackdown in red light districts on sex industry in South Korea', Crime and Criminal Justice International, vol 17 , pp 59 - 88.
  • Lo, T., Cheng, C., Wong, D., Rochelle, T. and Kwok, S. (2011), 'Self-esteem, self-efficacy and deviant behaviour of young people in Hong Kong', Advances in Applied Sociology, vol 1, no 1 , pp 48 - 55.

Conference Papers

  • Kwok, S., Li, K., Lo, T. and Cheng, C. (2011), 'Triad influences on the delinquent behavior of young people in Macau', Youth Behavior and Risk Factors, Macau, China.

Key research areas:

1. Chinese organized crime and criminal organizations 

  • Triads' structure, operation, subculture, and illicit business operation, including Casino industry
  • Policing triad society and other criminal organizations
  • Chinese transnational organized crime operation including drug and human trafficking, and counterfeit products smuggling
  • How Chinese criminals develop criminal networks with the upperworld and other ethnicity groups in local and transnational settings

2. Cultural criminology

How ethnicity and subculture of criminal groups influence their operation and collaboration

3. Drug rehabilitation 

This information has been contributed by Doctor Kwok.

Western Sydney University

Locked Bag 1797
Penrith NSW 2751

Tel: +61 2 9852 5222

ABN 53 014 069 881
CRICOS Provider No: 00917k