Doctor Liquan Liu

Doctor Liquan Liu

Senior Lecturer in Psychological Science,
Psychological Science


Dr Liquan Liu is a Senior Lecturer in Psychological Science. He currently works at Babylab hosted by the School of Psychology and the MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour and Development. His research interests lie in the multi-dimensional effects of multilingualism and multiculturalism on infant development and the relationship between internal (initial biases, learning mechanisms and developmental disorders) and external (quantity and quality of exposure) factors.

This information has been contributed by Doctor Liu.


  • PhD Utrecht University


  • Bilingualism
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Infant Development
  • Language Development
  • Multilingualism

Organisational Unit (School / Division)

  • Psychological Science


Location: O.G.30
Penrith (Kingswood)

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Previous Teaching Areas

  • 100023 Psychology of Language, 2017
  • 101183 Psychology: Behavioural Science, 2016
  • 101682 Developmental Psychology, 2016
  • 101682 Developmental Psychology, 2017
  • BEHV1016 Psychology: Behavioural Science, 2021
  • BEHV1016 Psychology: Behavioural Science, 2022
  • BEHV3019 Psychology of Language, 2021
  • BEHV4006 Research Methods Seminar, 2021



  • Liu, L. (2023), 'Bilingual Development in the Beginning of Life', : Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Press 9787552040920.
  • Liu, L. (2013), 'The Effects of Bilingualism on Infant Language Development: The Acquisition of Sounds and Words', : LOT 9789460931291.

Chapters in Books

  • Liu, L. and Zhang, J. (2022), '????????????????', China Language Strategies. Volume 9, Number 2, Nanjing University Press 9787305262555.
  • Fikkert, P., Liu, L. and Ota, M. (2020), 'The acquisition of word prosody', The Oxford Handbook of Language Prosody, Oxford University Press 9780198832232.
  • Zhang, J. and Liu, L. (2019), 'An investigation on the current mobile applications of Chinese language education', China Language Strategies. Volume 6, Number 1, Nanjing University Press 9787305225352.
  • Liu, L. and Weidemann, G. (2017), 'Is it wise to raise your child bilingually?', China Language Strategies. Volume 5, Number 1, Nanjing University Press 9787305190445.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2015), 'Understanding phonological acquisition through phonetic perception : the influence of exposure and acoustic salience', Phonological Studies = Phonology Study: No.18(2015) = On'in kenkyu? : 18 (2015), Kaitakusha 9784758920186.

Journal Articles

  • Moustafa, A., Alvinia, N., Liu, L., Richard, Y., Hanafy, A., Bagadood, N. and Hamza, E. (2023), '[In Press] Drinking motives as a predictor of readiness to change alcohol use', Current Psychology, .
  • Hamza, E., Yoon, A., Liu, L., Garg, A., Richard, Y., Frydecka, D., Helal, A. and Moustafa, A. (2023), 'The relationship between mindfulness and readiness to change in alcohol drinkers', International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol 20, no 9 .
  • Liu, L., Goetz, A., Lorette, P. and Tyler, M. (2022), 'How tone, intonation and emotion shape the development of infants' fundamental frequency perception', Frontiers in Psychology, vol 13 .
  • Liu, L., Lai, R., Singh, L., Kalashnikova, M., Wong, P., Kasisopa, B., Chen, A., Onsuwan, C. and Burnham, D. (2022), 'The tone atlas of perceptual discriminability and perceptual distance : four tone languages and five language groups', Brain and Language, vol 229 .
  • Zeng, Z., Liu, L., Tuninetti, A., Peter, V., Tsao, F. and Mattock, K. (2022), 'English and Mandarin native speakers' cue-weighting of lexical stress : results from MMN and LDN', Brain and Language, vol 232 .
  • Liu, L., Yuan, C., Ong, J., Tuninetti, A., Antoniou, M., Cutler, A. and Escudero, P. (2022), 'Learning to perceive non-native tones via distributional training : effects of task and acoustic cue weighting', Brain Sciences, vol 12, no 5 .
  • Byers-Heinlein, K., Tsui, R., van Renswoude, D., Black, A., Barr, R., Brown, A., Colomer, M., Durrant, S., Gampe, A., Gonzalez-Gomez, N., Hay, J., Hernik, M., Jarto, M., Kovacs, A., Laoun-Rubenstein, A., Lew-Williams, C., Liszkowski, U., Liu, L., Noble, C., Potter, C., Rocha-Hidalgo, J., Sebastian-Galles, N., Soderstrom, M., Visser, I., Waddell, C., Wermelinger, S. and Singh, L. (2021), 'The development of gaze following in monolingual and bilingual infants : a multi-laboratory study', Infancy, vol 26, no 1 , pp 4 - 38.
  • Byers-Heinlein, K., Tsui, A., Bergmann, C., Black, A., Brown, A., Carbajal, M., Durrant, S., Fennell, C., Fievet, A., Frank, M., Gampe, A., Gervain, J., Gonzalez-Gomez, N., Hamlin, J., Havron, N., Hernik, M., Kerr, S., Killam, H., Klassen, K., Kosie, J., Kovacs, A., Lew-Williams, C., Liu, L., Mani, N., Marino, C., Mastroberardino, M., Mateu, V., Noble, C., Orena, A., Polka, L., Potter, C., Schreiner, M., Singh, L., Soderstrom, M., Sundara, M., Waddell, C., Werker, J. and Wermelinger, S. (2021), 'A multilab study of bilingual infants : exploring the preference for infant-directed speech', Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, vol 4, no 1 , pp 1 - 30.
  • Liu, L., Du Toit, M. and Weidemann, G. (2021), 'Infants are sensitive to cultural differences in emotions at 11 months', PLoS One, vol 16, no 9 .
  • Liu, L., Escudero, P., Quattropani, C. and Robbins, R. (2020), 'Factors affecting infant toy preferences : age, gender, experience, motor development, and parental attitude', Infancy, vol 25, no 5 , pp 593 - 617.
  • Byers-Heinlein, K., Bergmann, C., Davies, C., Frank, M., Hamlin, J., Kline, M., Kominsky, J., Kosie, J., Lew-Williams, C., Liu, L., Mastroberardino, M., Singh, L., Waddell, C., Zettersten, M. and Soderstrom, M. (2020), 'Building a collaborative psychological science : lessons Learned from ManyBabies 1', Canadian Psychology, vol 61, no 4 , pp 349 - 363.
  • Liu, L., Chen, A. and Kager, R. (2020), 'Simultaneous bilinguals who do not speak a tone language show enhancement in pitch sensitivity but not in executive function', Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, vol 12, no 3 , pp 310 - 346.
  • Frank, M., Alcock, K., Arias-Trejo, N., Aschersleben, G., Baldwin, D., Barbu, S., Bergelson, E., Bergmann, C., Black, A., Blything, R., Bohland, M., Bolitho, P., Borovsky, A., Brady, S., Braun, B., Brown, A., Byers-Heinlein, K., Campbell, L., Cashon, C., Choi, M., Christodoulou, J., Cirelli, L., Conte, S., Cordes, S., Cox, C., Cristia, A., Cusack, R., Davies, C., De Klerk, M., Delle Luche, C., De Ruiter, L., Dinakar, D., Dixon, K., Durier, V., Durrant, S., Fennell, C., Ferguson, B., Ferry, A., Fikkert, P., Flanagan, T., Floccia, C., Foley, M., Fritzsche, T., Frost, R., Gampe, A., Gervain, J., Gonzalez-Gomez, N., Gupta, A., Hahn, L., Hamlin, J., Hannon, E., Havron, N., Hay, J., Hernik, M., Hohle, B., Houston, D., Howard, L., Ishikawa, M., Itakura, S., Jackson, I., Jakobsen, K., Jarto, M., Johnson, S., Junge, C., Karadag, D., Kartushina, N., Kellier, D., Keren-Portnoy, T., Klassen, K., Kline, M., Ko, E., Kominsky, J., Kosie, J., Kragness, H., Krieger, A., Krieger, F., Lany, J., Lazo, R., Lee, M., Leservoisier, C., Levelt, C., Lew-Williams, C., Lippold, M., Liszkowski, U., Liu, L. and et al, .. (2020), 'Quantifying sources of variability in infancy research using the infant-directed-speech preference', Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, vol 3, no 1 , pp 24 - 52.
  • Singh, L., Burnham, D., Hay, J., Liu, L. and Mattock, K. (2019), 'Lexical tone perception in infants and young children : empirical studies and theoretical perspectives', Frontiers in Psychology, vol 10 .
  • Liu, L., Ong, J., Tuninetti, A. and Escudero, P. (2018), 'One way or another : evidence for perceptual asymmetry in pre-attentive learning of non-native contrasts', Frontiers in Psychology, vol 9 .
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2018), 'Monolingual and bilingual infants' ability to use non-native tone for word learning deteriorates by the second year after birth', Frontiers in Psychology, vol 9 .
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Is mommy talking to daddy or to me? : exploring parental estimates of child language exposure using the Multilingual Infant Questionnaire', International Journal of Multilingualism, vol 14, no 4 , pp 366 - 377.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants', Cognitive Processing, vol 18, no 1 , pp 55 - 65.
  • Liu, L., Chen, A. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Perception of tones in Mandarin and Dutch adult listeners', Language and Linguistics, vol 18, no 4 , pp 622 - 646.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Statistical learning of speech sounds is most robust during the period of perceptual attunement', Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, vol 164 , pp 192 - 208.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Perception of tones by bilingual infants learning non-tone languages', Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, vol 20, no 3 , pp 561 - 575.
  • Liu, L., Han, M. and Kager, R. (2017), 'Keeping up with the monolinguals : an equal pace of vocabulary development between Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants in the first 18 months after birth', Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, vol 6, no 1 , pp 41 - 64.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2016), 'Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : a bilingual perceptual lead', International Journal of Bilingualism, vol 20, no 3 , pp 335 - 345.
  • Chen, A., Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2016), 'Cross-domain correlation in pitch perception, the influence of native language', Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, vol 31, no 6 , pp 751 - 760.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2015), 'Bilingual exposure influences infant VOT perception', Infant Behavior and Development, vol 38 , pp 27 - 36.
  • Chen, A., Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2015), 'Cross-linguistic perception of Mandarin tone sandhi', Language Sciences, vol 48 , pp 62 - 69.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2014), 'Perception of tones by infants learning a non-tone language', Cognition, vol 133, no 2 , pp 385 - 394.

Conference Papers

  • Liu, L., Peter, V., Ong, J. and Escudero, P. (2020), 'Revisiting infant distributional learning using event-related potentials : does unimodal always inhibit and bimodal always facilitate?', International Conference on Speech Prosody, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Zeng, Z., Mattock, K., Liu, L., Peter, V., Tuninetti, A. and Tsao, F. (2020), 'Mandarin and English adults' cue-weighting of lexical stress', INTERSPEECH (Conference), Online.
  • Agarwal, S., Tuninetti, A., Liu, L. and Escudero, P. (2019), 'Neural sensitivity to changes in naturally produced speech sounds : a comparison of different stimuli presentation paradigms', International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Melbourne, Vic..
  • Liu, L., Peter, V. and Weidemann, G. (2019), 'A bilingual advantage in infant pitch processing', International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Melbourne, Vic..
  • Nixon, J., Boll-Avetisyan, N., Lentz, T., Ommen, S., Keij, B., Coltekin, C., Liu, L. and Rij, J. (2018), 'Short-term exposure enhances perception of both between- and within-category acoustic information', International Conference on Speech Prosody, Poznan, Poland.
  • Boll-Avetisyan, N., Nixon, J., Lentz, T., Liu, L., Ommen, S., Coltekin, C. and Rij, J. (2018), 'Neural response development during distributional learning', INTERSPEECH (Conference), Hyderabad, India.
  • Burnham, D., Singh, L., Kasisopa, B., Wong, P., Fu, C., Wewalaarachchi, D., Liu, L., Onsuwan, C., Chen, A. and Kalashnikova, M. (2018), 'The Tone Atlas, step2 : perceptual salience of Thai, Cantonese, Beijing and Singaporean Mandarin tones for tone and non-tone language listeners', Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. Meeting, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • Liu, L. (2016), 'The early bilingual influence on speech and music processing', Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, Parramatta, N.S.W..
  • Bazouni, J., Liu, L., Weidemann, G. and Escudero, P. (2016), 'The role of affect processing on infant word learning', Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, Parramatta, N.S.W..
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2014), 'The discrimination of tonal contrasts by monolingual and bilingual adults', International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2013), 'How bilingualism alters non-tone-learning infants' tone perception in the first year of life', Boston University Conference on Language Development , Boston, Mass..
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2012), 'Non-tone monolingual and bilingual infants' tone perception under perceptual reorganization', International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages, Nanjing, China.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2012), 'Non-native tone perception from infant to adult : how consistent and flexible is it?', Speech Prosody , Shanghai, China.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2011), 'Is perceptual reorganization affected by statistical learning? : Dutch infants' sensitivity to lexical tone', Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, Mass..
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2011), 'How do statistical learning and perceptual reorganization alter Dutch infant's perception to lexical tones?', International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong, China.
  • Liu, L. and Kager, R. (2011), 'Dutch infants' sensitivity to lexical tones under perceptual reorganization : a cross-sectional study', Psycholinguistic Representation of Tone Conference, Hong Kong, China.

Early childhood perception, learning and development

  • Language development
  • Affect development
  • Language-affect interface
  • Pitch perception and learning
  • Multilingualism and multi-culturalism
  • Technology and online learning

This information has been contributed by Doctor Liu.


Current Supervision

Thesis Title: A Mothers use of Infant-Directed Speech to her Baby in Utero during the Second and Third Trimester of Pregnancy and the Influences of Maternal Fetal Attachment
Field of Research:
Thesis Title: Tone acquisition in monolingual and bilingual infants and toddlers
Field of Research:


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