Down to earth defence: How mutualistic fungi augment silicon-based defence against above- and belowground insect pests.
Si is a major component of soil-plant systems. It is present in most soils as monosilicic acid (H4SiO4), being passively (transpiration flow) or actively (transporter proteins) taken up by plants via the roots, and stored in and around plant tissues. The amount of Si in planta varies widely among species, with grasses accumulating more Si than most other plant groups. Silicification of plant tissues alleviates a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses.
Furthermore, nearly all plants associate with symbiotic fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) (Glomeromycota) and endophytes (ENDO) (Clavicipitaceae: Epichloë), in roots and shoots, respectively. AM and ENDO alter plant-insect interactions with many examples of them conferring resistance against insect pests. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that both AM and ENDO increase plant’s ability to take up Si. Specifically, collaborative effort of Johnson’s and Powell’s group, has shown that Si in combination with AM can diminish growth of a soil-dwelling herbivore pest. Associations between Si and foliar endophytes (ENDO), however, have yet to be properly deciphered.
Consequently, my PhD thesis builds on and extends these research gaps by evaluating how interactive effects of Si and mutualistic fungi (AM-ENDO) may synergistically enhance plant defence against above- and below-ground herbivore stressors. These multitrophic interactions will be investigated using a study system comprised of forage grasses (Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne), their fungal partners (commercially available: AM; Rhizophagus irregularis and ENDO: Epichloë spp.), and above-belowground herbivores in silicon-supplemented (Si+) and non-supplemented (Si-) conditions. Selected insect herbivores include several grass generalists that attack different plant structures and have different feeding habits (Table 1).
Interactive effects of Si uptake and mutualistic fungi are expected to synergistically enhance plant defence against the above mentioned herbivore stressors. I will use this study system to address the following questions: 1) are these mutualistic fungi enhancing plant silicon uptake? If so, 2) what are the mechanisms behind this enhancement? 3) what are the outcomes for plants? and 4) how are these interactions affecting phytohormonal plant defences?
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Epichloë endophytes exclusively infect grasses, reside intracellularly in aerial plant parts, and are vertically transmitted (asexually) via seeds. Intracellular hyphae run parallel to the longitudinal side of the plant cells (A), in seeds hyphae reside dormantly between aleurone cells (B). Endophyte’s can be isolated form the plant into selected media (C).
Deep root pots used to grow plants. Cages deployed to restrict aphid individuals (A) or populations (B).
Cibils-Stewart X, Johnson WA, Kliebenstein DJ, Baohua L, McCornack BP, 'Feeding location affects population growth rates and glucosinolate content in aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on winter canola (Brassica napus)' submitted- in review
Cibils-Stewart X, Nechols J, McCornack BP, 'Feeding location of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on winter canola affects life history traits of immature Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)' submitted- in review
Reddy AM, Pratt PD, Hopper JV, Cibils-Stewart X, Walsh GC, McKay F, (2019) 'Variation in cool temperature performance between populations of Neochetina eichhorniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and implications for the biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in a temperate climate', Biological Control, vol.128, pp 85-93
Russell A, Johnson S, Cibils-Stewart X, McKay F, Moshman L, Madeira P, Blait Z, Díaz R, (2017) 'Surveys in Argentina and Uruguay reveal Cyrtobagous salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations adapted to survive temperate climates in southeastern USA', Biological Control, vol.107, pp 41-49
Cibils-Stewart X, McCornack BP, Sandercock B, (2014) 'Feeding location affects demographic performance of cabbage aphids on winter canola', Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.156, no.2, pp 149-159
Tripodi AD, Cibils-Stewart X, McCornack BP, Szalanski AL, (2014) 'Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Trypanosomatid prevalence in spring bumble bee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) in Kansas', Journal of Kansas Entomological Society, vol.87, no.2, pp 225-233
Petzold-Maxwell JL, Cibils-Stewart X, French BW, Gassmann AJ, (2012) 'Adaptation by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bt Maize: Inheritance, Fitness Costs, and Feeding Preference', Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.105, no.4, pp 1407-1418
A/Professor Scott N. Johnson, A/Professor Jeff Powell and Dr. Casey Hall