Education for Sustainability (EfS) puts emphasis on the necessary interrelationships between theory and practice; local and global scales and present and future and thus has a global citizenship component that requires a critical evaluation of environment and social justice issues. At Western students from all discplines can undertake a degree specialisations (sub-majors or majors) that support transformative teaching for the SDGs. These include:
Sustainability is a contested term with a long and complicated trajectory. United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Sustainable development is seen as ‘not a fixed state of harmony, but rather a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are made consistent with future as well as present needs.’ (Brutland, 1987: Clause 3.30). The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all 194 United Nations Member States in 2015, identifies 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries in a global partnership. At Western we acknowledge that sustainability definitions are diverse and contestable.